Bill of Rights

The Bill of Rights was enacted, amending the U. S. Constitution tomorrow December 15th, in 1791. It is a list of the most important rights of the citizens, the purpose of which is to protect those rights against infringement from public officials and private citizens. (Below is a brief description of each article in the Bill of Rights)

 

  1. Prohibits Congress from making any law  respecting an establishment of religion, impeding free exercise of religion, infringing on freedom of  speech and of the press, interfering with the right to peaceable assembly or prohibiting the petitioning for a governmental redress of grievances;
  2. Protects the right to keep and bear arms;
  3. Places restrictions on the “quartering” of soldiers in private homes without owner’s consent; prohibited during peacetime;
  4. Prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures, and sets out requirements for search warrants based on probable cause;
  5. Sets out rules for indictment by grand jury and eminent domain, protects the right to due process, and prohibits self-incrimination and double jeopardy;
  6. Protects the right to a fair and speedy public trial by jury, including rights to be notified of the accusations, to confront the accuser, to obtain witnesses and to retain counsel;
  7. Provides for the right to trial by jury in certain civil cases;
  8. Prohibits excessive fines and excessive bail, as well as cruel and unusual punishment;
  9. Protects rights not enumerated in the Constitution;
  10.  Reinforces the principle of federalism by stating that the federal government possesses only those powers delegated to it by the states or the people through the Constitution.  (from Wikipedia)

 

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the bra invented ….

The Dresden-based German Christine Hardt invented the first modern brassiere this date in 1899.

The term brassiere was used by the Evening Herald in Syracuse, New York, in 1893. It gained wider acceptance in 1904 when the DeBevoise Company used it in their advertising copy—although the word is actually Norman French for a child’s undershirt. Early versions resembled a camisole stiffened with boning.

Vogue magazine first used the term brassier in 1907 and by 1911, the word had made its way into the Oxford English Dictionary. On November 3, 1914, the newly formed U.S. patent category for “brassieres” was inaugurated with the first patent issued to Mary Phelps Jacob. In the 1930’s brassiere was gradually shortened to bra.

Wearing a garment to support the breasts may date back to ancient Greece. Women wore a strip of cloth called a “breast-band,” a band of wool or linen that was wrapped across the breasts and tied or pinned at the back

Fragments of linen textiles found in East Tyrol in Austria dated to between 1440 and 1485 are believed to have been bras. Two of them had cups made from two pieces of linen sewn with fabric that extended to the bottom of the torso with a row of six eyelets for fastening with a lace or string. One had two shoulder straps and was decorated with lace in the cleavage.

From the 16th Century, the undergarments of wealthier women in the Western world were dominated by the corset, which pushed the breasts upwards. In the later 19th Century, clothing designers began experimenting with alternatives, splitting the corset into multiple parts: a girdle-like restraining device for the lower torso, and devices that suspended the breasts from the shoulder to the upper torso. (from Wikipedia)