Telephone patented


Alexander Graham Bell was a Scottish-born scientist, inventor, engineer and innovator who is credited with patenting the first practical telephone this date in 1876.

Bell’s father, grandfather, and brother had all been associated with work on elocution and speech, and both his mother and wife were deaf, profoundly influencing Bell’s life’s work. His research on hearing and speech further led him to experiment with hearing devices that eventually culminated in Bell being awarded the first U. S. patent for the telephone on this date in 1876. Bell considered his most famous invention an intrusion on his real work as a scientist and refused to have a telephone in his study. Later, on March 10th that same year, Bell first successfully transmitted speech, saying “Mr. Watson, come here! I want to see you!” using a liquid transmitter.

An inventor named Elisha Gray had filed “an intent” to get a patent for a very similar invention earlier that same day with the U. S. Patent Office. Bell made his application several hours later and, since it was an actual application rather than just an intent to file an application, Bell was awarded the patent. The U.S. Patent Office’s decision to award the patent to Bell remains a point of contention among historians and members of the Gray family to this day. (from Wikipedia)


Silly putty invented…


Silly Putty is a toy based on silicone polymers that have unusual physical properties. It bounces, but breaks when given a sharp blow and can also flow like a liquid. It contains a viscoelastic liquid silicone, a type of non-Newtonian fluid, which makes it act as a viscous liquid over a long time period but as an elastic solid over a short-time period. It was originally created during research into potential rubber substitutes for use by the U.S. in World War II, but did not find a market until March 6th in 1950. (Posting today so I can post National Dentists Day tomorrow)

The name Silly Putty is a trademark of Crayola, though similar substances are available by other manufacturers. (from Wikipedia)

Constitution of U.S. goes into effect….



The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. The Constitution, originally comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government. Its first three articles entrench the doctrine of the separation of powers, whereby the federal government is divided into three branches: the legislative, consisting of Congress; the executive, consisting of the President; and the judicial, consisting of the Supreme Court and other federal courts. Articles Four, Five and Six entrench concepts of federalism, describing the rights and responsibilities of state governments and of the states in relationship to the federal government. Article Seven establishes the procedure subsequently used by the thirteen States to ratify it.

Since the Constitution came into force this date in 1789, it has been amended twenty-seven times to meet the changing needs of a nation profoundly different from the eighteenth-century world in which its creators lived. In general, the first ten amendments, known collectively as the Bill of Rights, offer specific protections of individual liberty and justice and place restrictions on the powers of government. The majority of the seventeen later amendments expand individual civil rights protections. Others address issues related to federal authority or modify government processes and procedures. Amendments to the United States Constitution, unlike ones made to many constitutions worldwide, are appended to the end of the document. All four pages of the original U.S. Constitution are written on parchment.


The Constitution’s first three words—We the People—affirm that the government of the United States exists to serve its citizens. For over two centuries the Constitution has remained in force because its framers wisely separated and balanced governmental powers to safeguard the interests of majority rule and minority rights, of liberty and equality, and of the federal and state governments.

The first constitution of its kind, adopted by the people’s representatives for an expansive nation, it is interpreted, supplemented, and implemented by a large body of constitutional law, and has influenced the constitutions of other nations. (from Wikipedia)

The Star Spangled Banner


Francis Scott Key, an American lawyer, author, and amateur poet, wrote the lyrics to the United States national anthem, “The Star-Spangled Banner.”

During the War of 1812, Key watched the bombarding of the American forces at Fort McHenry during the Battle of Baltimore on the night of September 13-14, 1814. At dawn, he was able to see an American flag still waving and inspired, wrote a poem about his experience, which was soon published. A music publisher adapted it to the rhythms of composer John Stafford Smith’s “To Anacreon in Heaven,” a popular tune Key had already used as a setting for an earlier song.

Though somewhat difficult to sing, the song became increasingly popular, competing with “Hail, Columbia” (1796) as the de facto national anthem by the time of the Mexican-American War and American Civil War. More than a century after its first publication, the song was adopted as the American national anthem, first by an Executive Order from President Woodrow Wilson in 1916 (which had little effect beyond requiring military bands to play what became known as the “Service Version”) and then by a Congressional resolution this date in 1931, signed by President Herbert Hoover.  (from Wikipedia)


First National Park


Yellowstone National Park is located primarily in Wyoming, although it also extends into Montana and Idaho, and was established by the U. S. Congress and signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant on February 29, 1872. Yellowstone was the first National Park in the U.S. and is also widely held to be the first national park in the world. The park is known for its wildlife and its many geothermal features, especially Old Faithful Geyser, one of its most popular features.


Yellowstone National Park spans an area of 3,468 square miles, comprising lakes, canyons, rivers and mountain ranges, Yellowstone Lake is one of the largest high-elevation lakes in North America and is centered over the Yellow Stone caldera, the largest supervolcano on the continent, and is considered an active volcano. It has erupted with tremendous force several times in the last two million years. Half of the world’s geothermal features are in Yellowstone, fueled by this ongoing volcanism. Lava flows and rocks from volcanic eruptions cover most of the land area of Yellowstone.



Hundreds of species of mammals, birds, fish and reptiles have been documented, including several that are either endangered or threatened. Grizzley bears, wolves, and free-ranging herds of  bison and elk live in the park. The Park’s bison herd is the oldest and largest public bison herd in the United States. Yellowstone has numerous recreational opportunities, including hiking, camping, boating, fishing and sightseeing. Paved roads provide close access to the major geothermal areas, as well as some of the lakes and waterfalls. During the winter, visitors often access the park by way of guided tours that use either snow coaches or snowmobiles. (from Wikipedia)



Colt Pistol Patented


Pistol patent day is celebrated today. Samuel Colt received a British patent on his improved design for a revolver in 1835, and two U.S. patents in 1836, one on February 25 and another on August. That same year, he founded his first corporation for its manufacture in Paterson, NJ. Making firearms with interchangeable parts was still rather new (it had reached commercial viability only about a decade before), and it was not yet easy to replicate across different factories. The Colt Paterson revolver found patchy success and failure.

Colt made another attempt at revolver production in 1846 and submitted a prototype to the US government, which was used during the Mexican-American War (1846–1848). This prototype was seen by Captain Samuel Walker, who made some suggestions to Colt about making it in a larger caliber. Having no factory or machinery to produce the pistols, Samuel Colt collaborated with the Whitney amory  in Connecticut. This armory was run by the family of Eli Whitney, Jr, the son of the cotton-gin-developer patriarch.


Colt’s new revolvers found favor with Texan volunteers (the progenitors of later Texas Ranger cavalry groups), and they placed an order for 1,000 revolvers that became known as the Colt Walker, ensuring Colt’s continuance in manufacturing revolvers. In 1848, Colt was able to start again with a new business of his own, and 1855, he converted it into a corporation under the name of Colt’s Patent Fire-Arms Manufacturing Company. It was a leader in assembly line practice, a major innovator and training ground in manufacturing technology.

Colt was also innovative in the treatment of his employees. Although he ran the plant with a military-like discipline, he established a ten-hour day for employees, installed washing stations in the factory, mandated a one-hour lunch break, and built the Charter Oak Hall, a club where employees could enjoy games, newspapers, and discussion rooms. He also set up libraries and educational programs within the plants for his employees

In 1852 an employee of Colt’s, Rollin White, came up with the idea of having the revolver cylinder bored through to accept metallic cartridges. He took this idea to Colt who flatly rejected it and ended up firing White within a few years. Colt historian RL Wilson has described this as the major blunder of Sam Colt’s professional life.


Rollin White left Colt’s in December 1854 and registered a patent on April 3, 1855 for an improvement in repeating firearms. On November 17, 1856 White signed an agreement with Smith and Wesson for the exclusive use of his patent. Smith & Wesson not only introduced its first revolver in 1857 (a rear-loader), but also started, as of 1858, to convert cap & ball percussion guns into rear-loaders, even with formerly Colt manufactured revolvers.

But the Colt’s company itself was prevented by American laws from infringing the Rollin White patent and in the 1850s and 1860s continued manufacturing percussion guns. In 1860 it produced a new revolver model for the United States Army. This Colt Army Model 1860 appeared just in time for the American Civil War. (from Wikipedia)

Tootsie Roll rolls into stores….


The Tootsie Roll rolled into stores in the U.S. on February 23rd in 1896.

In 1896 Leo Hirshfield, an Austrian immigrant, began work at a small candy shop located in NY City. Hirshfield decided he wanted a chocolate-tasting candy that would not melt in the heat, and that would be an economical artificial alternative to traditional chocolates. He named the candy after the nickname of his daughter, Clara “Tootsie.” By this point, the company had expanded to a five-story factory. In 1917 the name of the company was changed to The Sweets Company of America.


In 1931 the Tootsie Pop — a hard-candy lollipop with Tootsie Roll filling — was invented, and quickly became popular with Dust Bowl refugees during the Depression era because of its low price. During World War II, Tootsie Rolls became a standard part of American soldiers field rations due to the hardiness of the candy under a variety of environmental conditions

In 2002, 60 million Tootsie Rolls and twenty million Tootsie Pops were produced every day. (from Wikipedia and