George Eastman received a patent for roll film and trademarked the name “Kodak.”
George Eastman received a patent for roll film and trademarked the name “Kodak.”
The “Uncle Sam” image, the symbol of America, was first used this date in 1813.
Uncle Sam (initials U.S.) is a common national personification of the American government that, according to legend, came into use during the War of 1812 and was supposedly named for Samuel Wilson, who supplied rations for the soldiers. His birthday is September 13, 1766, which is why the date chosen to celebrate is always on September 3rd.
The first use of Uncle Sam in literature was in the 1816 allegorical book “The Adventures of Uncle Sam in Search After His Lost Honor” by Frederick Augustus Fidfaddy, Esq. An Uncle Sam is mentioned as early as 1775, in the original “Yankee Doodle” lyrics of the Revolutionary War. It is not clear whether this reference is to Uncle Sam as a metaphor for the United States.
There are two memorials to Uncle Sam, both of which commemorate the life of Samuel Wilson: the Uncle Sam Memorial Statue in Arlington, Massachusetts, his birthplace; and a memorial near his long-term residence in Riverfront Park, Troy, New York. He is buried in New York. (from: Wikipedia and www.cute-calendar.com)
World War II was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the world’s nations—including the great powers— that eventually formed opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. In a state of “total war,” the major participants threw entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust (in which approximately 11 million people were killed) and the strategic bombing of industrial and population centers (in which approximately one million were killed, including the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki), the war resulted in an estimated 50 to 85 million fatalities. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history.
The world war is generally said to have begun on September 1, 1939 with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom. From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbors: Poland, Finland, Romania and the Baltic states. The war continued primarily between the European Axis powers and the coalition of the United Kingdom and the British Commonwealth, with campaigns in Africa, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz bombing campaign and the Balkan campaign, as well as the long-running Battle of the Atlantic. In June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theater of war in history, that trapped the major part of the Axis’ military forces into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan, already at war with China, attacked the United States and European territories in the Pacific Ocean and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway near Hawaii, and Germany was defeated in North Africa and then, decisively, at Stalingrad in the Soviet Union. In 1943, with a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasion of Sicily and Italy, and Allied victories in the Pacific, the Axis lost the initiative and undertook strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in south central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands.
The war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet and Polish troops and the subsequent German unconditional surrender on May 8, 1945. Following the refusal of Japan to surrender, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6th and 9th respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings and the Soviet Union’s declaration of war on Japan and invasion of Manchuria, Japan surrendered on August 15, 1945. Thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies.
World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world. The United Nations (UN) was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, China, the United Kingdom, and France—became permanent members of the UN Security Council. The Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War that lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonization of Asia and Africa began. Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and to create a common identity. (from me and Wikipedia)
Mary Poppins is an American musical fantasy-comedy film released this date in 1964 and produced by Walt Disney loosely based on P. L. Travers book series Mary Poppins. The film, which combines live-action and animation, stars Dick Van Dyke as a chimney sweep and Julie Andrews in the role of Mary Poppins who visits a dysfunctional family in London and employs her unique brand of lifestyle to improve the family’s dynamic.
Mary Poppins was released to universal acclaim, receiving a total of thirteen Academy Award nominations, including Best Picture—an unsurpassed record for any other film released by Walt Disney Studios—and won five: Best Actress for Andrews, Best Film Editing, best Original Music Score, best Visual Effects and Best Original Song for “Chim Chim Cher-ee”. In 2013, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being “culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant”. (from me and Wikipedia)
In his iconic speech at the Lincoln Memorial for the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, Martin Luther King Jr. synthesized portions of earlier speeches to capture both the necessity for change and the potential for hope in American society. It became known as the “I Have a Dream” speech from the six paragraphs that begin with those same words. (from me and the King Institute)
The island volcano of Krakatoa, an uninhabited volcanic island near Indonesia, erupted on this date in 1886. It was heard over 3,000 miles away and was one of the biggest natural disasters ever recorded. It expelled huge clouds of gas and ash, generated massive tsunamis nearly 120 feet tall, and killed more than 36,000 people, victims of the tsunamis that followed the collapse of the volcano into the caldera below sea level.
The island is about 3 miles wide and 5.5 miles long (9 by 5 kilometers). Before the historic eruption, it had three linked volcanic peaks: Perboewatan, the northernmost and most active; Danan in the middle; and the largest, Rakata, forming the southern end of the island. Krakatoa and the two nearby islands, Lang and Verlatan, are remnants of a previous large eruption that left an undersea caldera between them.
It is thought that debris from the earlier eruptive activity in May of that year must have plugged the neck of the cone, allowing pressure to build in the magma chamber. The initial explosion ruptured the magma chamber and allowed seawater to contact the hot lava. The result is known as a phreatomagmatic event. The water flash-boiled, creating a cushion of superheated steam that carried the pyroclastic flows up to 25 miles (40 km) at speeds in excess of 62 mph (100 kph). The explosion is estimated to have had the explosive force of 200 megatons of TNT.
The explosions hurled an estimated 11 cubic miles (45 cubic km) of debris into the atmosphere, darkening skies up to 275 miles (442 km) from the volcano. In the immediate vicinity, dawn did not return for three days. Barographs around the globe documented that the shock waves in the atmosphere circled the planet at least seven times. Within 13 days, a layer of sulfur dioxide and other gases began to filter the amount of sunlight able to reach Earth. The atmospheric effects made for spectacular sunsets all over Europe and the United States. Average global temperatures were up to 1.2 degrees cooler for the next five years.
In 1927, some fishermen were startled as a column of steam and debris began spewing from the collapsed caldera. Krakatoa had awakened after 44 years of calm. Within weeks, the rim of a new cone appeared above sea level. Within a year, it grew into a small island, which was named Anak Krakatoa, or Child of Krakatoa. Anak Krakatoa has continued to erupt periodically, although mildly. (from Live Science)
Vesuvius Day commemorates the epic eruption that had destroyed historic Pompeii and caused the death of about 16,000 people. On August, 24th 79 AD Mount Vesuvius erupted surprisingly after centuries of dormancy and buried the towns around with all the people under a cloud of lava, stones and ash. Mount Vesuvius is still an active volcano in the Province of Naples in Italy and about 4,200 feet high.
The exact dating of Mount Vesuvius Day is possible for the letters of the Roman Pliny the Younger who documented the great eruption. The Italian name of Mount Vesuvius is Monte Vesuvio. Although the danger of another eruption continues to exist, the fruitful earth around the volcano is still the basis of existence for many people. (from www.cute-calendar.com)