Magna Carta

Magna Carta (Great Charter) is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor this date in 1215. First drafted by the Archbishop of Canterbury to make peace between the unpopular King and a group of rebel barons, it promised the protection of church rights, protection for the barons from illegal imprisonment, access to swift justice, and limitations on feudal payments to the  Crown,to be implemented through a council of 25 barons.

Neither side stood behind their commitments. After John’s death, the regency government of his young son, Henry III reissued the document in 1216, stripped of some of its more radical content in an unsuccessful bid to build political support for their cause. At the end of the war in 1217, it formed part of the peace treaty at Lambeth, where the document acquired the name Magna Carta, to distinguish it from the smaller document issued at the same time. Short of funds, Henry reissued the charter again in 1225 in exchange for a grant of new taxes; his son, Edward I repeated the exercise in 1297, this time confirming it as part of England’s statute law.

The charter became part of English political life and was typically renewed by each monarch in turn, although as time went by and the fledgling English Parliament passed new laws, it lost some of its practical significance. At the end of the 16th Century, there was an upsurge in interest in Magna Carta. Lawyers and historians at the time believed that there was an ancient English constitution, going back to the days of the Anglo-Saxons, that protected individual English freedoms. They argued that the Norman invasion o f 1066 had overthrown these rights, and that Magna Carta had been a popular attempt to restore them, making the charter an essential foundation for the contemporary powers of Parliament and legal principles such as habeas corpus. Although this historical account was badly flawed, jurists used Magna Carta extensively in the early 17th century, arguing against the divine right of kings.

The political myth of Magna Carta and its protection of ancient personal liberties influenced the early American colonists and the formation of the American Constitution in 1787, which became the supreme law of the land in the new republic.

Research by Victorian historians showed that the original 1215 charter had concerned the medieval relationship between the monarch and the barons, rather than the rights of ordinary people, but the charter remained a powerful, iconic document, even after almost all of its content was repealed from the statute books in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Magna Carta still forms an important symbol of liberty today, often cited by politicians and campaigners, and is held in great respect by the British and American legal communities. It has been described as “the greatest constitutional document of all times–the foundation of the freedom of the individual against the arbitrary authority of the despot”.  (from Wikipedia)

E. T. go home ….

E.T. the Extra Terrestrial  is a 1982 American science fiction fantasy co-produced and directed by Steven Spielberg and written by Melissa Mathison. It was Drew Barrymore’s first appearance. It tells the story of Elliott, a lonely boy who befriends an extra terrestrial, dubbed “E.T.”, who is stranded on Earth. He and his siblings help it return home while attempting to keep it hidden from their mother and the government.

The concept was based on an imaginary friend Spielberg created after his parents’ divorce in 1960. In 1980, Spielberg met Mathison and developed a new story from the stalled sci-fi horror film project Night Skies. It was shot from September to December 1981 in California on a budget of US$10.5 million. Unlike most films, it was roughly shot in chronological order to facilitate convincing emotional performances from the young cast.

Released this date in 1982 by Universal Pictures, E.T was an immediate blockbuster, surpassing Star Wars to become the highest-grossing film of all time—a record it held for eleven years until Jurassic Park, another Spielberg-directed film, surpassed it in 1993. Widely regarded as one of the greatest films of all time, critics acclaimed it as a timeless story of friendship. In 1994, it was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry as being “culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant.” It was re-released in 1985 and then again in 2002 to celebrate its 20th anniversary, with altered shots and additional scenes. (from Wikipedia)

 

This day in history…Donald Duck

DonaldDuck-PixabayDonald Duck made his debut this day in 1934 thanks to Disney. He is most famous for his semi-intelligible speech and his mischievous and temperamental personality. Along with his friend Mickey Mouse, Donald is one of the most popular Disney characters and was included in TV Guide’s list of the 50 greatest cartoon characters of all time in 2002. He has appeared in more films than any other Disney character and is the most published comic book character in the world outside of the superhero genre. (from Wikipedia)

Did you know Donald Duck has a middle name? In Donald F. Duck, “F” stands for “Fauntleroy.”

Superman arrives ….

Superman is an ongoing American comic book series featuring the DC Comics. The character Superman began as one of several anthology features in comic book Action Comics this date in 1938. The strip proved so popular that National launched Superman into his own self-titled comic book, the first for any superhero, premiering with the cover date Summer 1939.

Superman also had the distinction of being the first ever hero-character featured in more than one comic magazine. By issue #7, Superman was being hailed on the covers as the “World’s Greatest Adventure Strip Character.” Various characters and story legends were introduced over time: Perry White, a supporting character who originated on the Superman radio program; kryptonite came from the same radio program; and Jimmy Olsen first appeared as a named character in the story “Superman versus The Archer” in 1941. A more detailed origin story for Superman was presented in 1948 to mark the character’s tenth anniversary.  (from Wikipedia)

Women provided with support …..

The Dresden-based German Christine Hardt invented the first modern brassiere this date in 1899.

The term brassiere was used by the Evening Herald in Syracuse, New York, in 1893. It gained wider acceptance in 1904 when the DeBevoise Company used it in their advertising copy—although the word is actually Norman French for a child’s undershirt. Early versions resembled a camisole stiffened with boning.

Vogue magazine first used the term brassiere in 1907 and by 1911, the word had made its way into the Oxford English Dictionary. On November 3, 1914, the newly formed U.S. patent category for “brassieres” was inaugurated with the first patent issued to Mary Phelps Jacob. In the 1930’s brassiere was gradually shortened to bra.

Wearing a garment to support the breasts may date back to ancient Greece. Women wore a strip of cloth called a “breast-band,” a band of wool or linen that was wrapped across the breasts and tied or pinned at the back

Fragments of linen textiles found in East Tyrol in Austria dated to between 1440 and 1485 are believed to have been bras. Two of them had cups made from two pieces of linen sewn with fabric that extended to the bottom of the torso with a row of six eyelets for fastening with a lace or string. One had two shoulder straps and was decorated with lace in the cleavage.

From the 16th Century, the undergarments of wealthier women in the Western world were dominated by the corset, which pushed the breasts upwards. In the later 19th Century, clothing designers began experimenting with alternatives, splitting the corset into multiple parts: a girdle-like restraining device for the lower torso, and devices that suspended the breasts from the shoulder to the upper torso. (from Wikipedia)