Civil Works Projects Leads to WPA

The Civil Works Administration (CWA) was a short-lived U.S. job-creation program established by the New Deal during the Great Depression to rapidly create manual labor jobs for millions of unemployed workers. The jobs were merely temporary for the duration of the hard winter of 1933-34.

The CWA created construction jobs, mainly improving or constructing buildings and bridges. It ended on March 31, 1934 after spending $200 million a month and giving jobs to four million people.

The CWA’s workers laid 12 million feet of sewer pipe and built or improved 255,000 miles of roads, 40,000 schools, 3,700 playgrounds, and nearly 1,000 airports (not to mention building 250,000 outhouses still badly needed in rural America).

Although the CWA provided much employment, there were critics who said there was nothing of permanent value. President Franklin D. Roosevelt told his cabinet that this criticism moved him to end the program and replace it later that year with the WPA, which would have long-term value for society, in addition to short-term benefits for the unemployed (More about the WPA on May 6,  2018, it’s official beginning with an Executive Order signed that date).

The Works Progress Administration (renamed in 1939 as the Work Projects Administration) was the largest and most ambitious American New Deal agency, employing millions of people (mostly unskilled men) to carry out public works projects, including the construction of public buildings, roads and dams,  during the Great Depression.  Almost every community in the U.S. had a new park, bridge or school constructed by the agency, and national parks benefited also. Work relief was preferable to public assistance because it maintained self-respect, reinforced the work ethic and kept skills sharp.

It was liquidated on June 30, 1943 as a result of low unemployment due to the worker shortage of World War II. The WPA provided millions of Americans with jobs for eight years.  (from Wikipedia)

Republican Party elephant makes first appearance

Cartoonist Thomas Nast depicts the Republican Party as an elephant in a cartoon in Harper’s Weekly this date in 1874.


An updated version of the cartoon elephant   xxrepublican-elephanat-2

And, just so Democrats don’t feel left out, here are present and past versions of the Democratic Party symbol.  The origins of the Democratic donkey can be traced to the 1828 presidential campaign of Andrew Jackson. During that race, opponents of Jackson called him a jackass.



Abraham Lincoln elected 16th President


On this date in 1860, Abraham Lincoln beat John C. Breckinridge, Stephen A. Douglas and John Bell to be elected as the 16th President of the United States, the first Republican to hold that office.

There was already talk that if Lincoln were elected President, South Carolina might take the lead in seceding from the Union. His position on slavery is one of the central issues in American history.

Lincoln often expressed moral opposition to slavery in public and private. He believed that the extension of slavery in the South, Midwest and Western lands would inhibit “free labor on free soil.” He did not call for the immediate end of slavery everywhere in the U.S. until the proposed 13th Amendment became part of his party platform for a later election (1864). (Wikipedia and Cute Calendar)

King Tut


King Tut Day celebrates the date of the discovery of King Tutankhamen’s Tomb in 1922. Tutankhamun was the 11th pharaoh of Dynasty 18 of the New Kingdom in Ancient Egypt, making his mummy over 3,300 years old. The discovery of the tomb as a whole was one of the most significant and famous archeological discoveries in modern times.  (from Wikipedia and Cute Calendar)

Daylight Saving Time Expires ….


Daylight Saving Time ends at 2:00 AM tomorrow. Clocks will need to be set back an hour for most of the country, Canada and Mexico’s northern border cities.

The practice of setting clocks ahead in the spring and back in the fall first occurred during the First World War to reduce evening usage of incandescent lighting, formerly a primary use of electricity. The practice has been both praised and criticized. Adding daylight to evenings benefits retailing, sports and other activities that exploit sunlight after working hours. But it can cause problems for evening entertainment and other occupations tied to the sun. (from me and Cute Calendar)