Batman is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character was created in 1939 and is also referred to as the Caped Crusader, the Dark Knight and the World’s Greatest Detective. Batman became popular immediately and gained his own comic book the following year. As the decades went on, differing interpretations of the character of the character emerged.
Batman debuted on television this date in 1966 using a “camp aesthetic,” which continued to be associated with the character for years after the show ended. Various creators worked to return the character to his dark roots, culminating in 1986 with The Dark Knight Returns by Frank Miller. The success of Warner Bros. live-action films have helped maintain the public’s interest in the character.
Batman’s secret identity is Bruce Wayne, an American billionaire, playboy, philanthropist and owner of Wayne Enterprises. After witnessing the murder of his parents as a child, he swore revenge on criminals, an oath tempered by a sense of justice. Batman operates in the fictional Gotham City, with assistance from various supporting characters, including his butler Alfred, police commissioner Gordon and vigilante allies such as Robin. Unlike most super heroes, Batman does not possess any super powers; rather, he relies on his genius intellect, physical prowess, martial arts abilities, detective skills, science and technology, vast wealth and indomitable will. An assortment of villains make up Batman’s rogues gallery, including his arch enemy, the Joker.
An American cultural icon, Batman has been licensed and adapted into a variety of media, from radio to television and film, and appears on various merchandise sold all over the world, such as toys and video games. In May 2011, Batman placed second on Top 100 Comic Book Heroes of All Time (after Superman). (from Wikipedia and cute-calendar.com)
by Irina March
The London Underground (also known by its nickname “theTube”) is a public rapid transit system serving Greater London and some adjacent parts of some counties in the United Kingdom.
The world’s first underground passenger railway system opened in London this date in 1863. The network has expanded to 11 lines and in 2015-2016 carried 1.34 billion passengers, making it the world’s 11th busiest metro system.
The system’s first tunnels were built just below the surface, using the cut and cover method. Later, smaller, roughly circular tunnels (which gave rise to its nickname “the Tube”) were dug through at a deeper level. The system has 270 stations and 250 miles of track. Despite its name, only 45% of the system is actually underground in tunnels, with much of the network in the outer environs of London being on the surface. In addition, the Underground does not cover most southern parts of Greater London, with less than 10% of the stations located south of the River Themes. (from Wikipedia and cute-calendar.com)
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization formed to promote international cooperation. A replacement for the ineffective League of Nations, the organization was established after World War II in order to prevent another such conflict. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. Headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, promoting human rights, fostering social and economic development, protecting the environment, and providing humanitarian aid in cases of famine, natural disaster and armed conflict.
The U.N. opened its headquarters in New York City this date in 1952. Although it is situated in New York City, the land occupied by the United Nations Headquarters and the spaces of buildings that it rents are under the sole administration of the United Nations and not the U.S. government. They are technically extra-territorial through a treaty agreement with the U.S. government. However, in exchange for local police, fire protection and other services, the United Nations agrees to acknowledge most local, state, and federal laws. (from Wikipedia)
Bubble Bath Day is celebrated today. A bubble bath is a filled bathtub with a layer of surfactant foam on the surface of the water and consequently also the surfactant product used to produce the foam. Bubbles on top of the water, less ambiguously known as a foam bath, can be obtained by adding a product containing foaming surfactants to water and temporarily aerating it by agitation.
The practice is popular for personal bathing because of the belief that it cleanses the skin, that the foam insulates the bathwater, keeping it warm for longer, and prevents or reduces deposits on the bathtub at and below the water level produced by soap and hard water. It can hide the body of the bather, preserving modesty or, in theatre and film, giving the appearance that a performer who is actually clothed is bathing normally. Children find foam baths particularly amusing, so they are an inducement to get them into the bathtub.
The earliest foam baths were foamed with soap, which practice came about shortly after soap flakes were marketed. Saponins were also used to foam machine-aerated baths. Foam baths became more popular with later surfactants. Foam baths became standard practice for bathing children after the mass marketing of products so positioned in supermarkets during the 1960s. (from cute-calendar.com and Wikipedia)
Galileo Galilei was an Italian astronomer, physicist, engineer, philosopher and mathematician who played a major role in the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century. He has been called the “father of observational astronomy,” “the father of modern physics,” and the “father of science.” On this date in 1610, he discovered four of Jupiter’s moons.
His contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic confirmation of the phases of Venus, the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter, and the observation and analysis of sunspots. Galileo also worked in applied science and technology, inventing an improved military compass and other instruments, including a thermoscope that was the forerunner of the thermometer and pioneering the telescope.
Galileo’s championing of “heliocentrism” (belief that earth and the planets revolved around the sun) was controversial during his lifetime; most astronomers believed that earth was the center of the solar system. The matter was investigated by the Roman Inquisition in 1615, which concluded that besides being “foolish and absurd,” it was considered “heretical since it explicitly contradicted in many places the sense of the Holy Scripture.” Galileo later defended his views, which appeared to attack the Pope. He was tried by the Inquisition and found “vehemently suspect of heresy” and forced to recant. He spent the rest of his life under house arrest.
During that time, Galileo wrote one of his best-known works that summarized work he had done some forty years earlier on the two sciences now called kinematics and strength of materials. (from Wikipedia and cute-calendar.com)