Incandescent Lamp Invented


Thomas Edison is given credit for inventing the incandescent electric lamp in 1879.

In addressing the question of who invented the incandescent lamp, historians list 22 inventors of incandescent lamps prior to Edison. They conclude that Edison’s version as able to outstrip the others because of a combination of three factors: an effective incandescent material, a higher vacuum than others were able to achieve and a higher resistance that made power distribution from a centralized source economically viable.

Historian Thomas Hughes has attributed Edison’s success to his development of an entire integrated system of electric lighting. The lamp was a small component in his system of lighting and no more critical to its effective functioning than the Edison Jumbo Generator, the Edison main power source and feeder, and the parallel distribution system. Other inventors with generators and incandescent lamps, and with comparable ingenuity and excellence, have long been forgotten because their creators did not preside over their introduction in a system of lighting. (from Wikipedia)


Pony Express Ends



The Pony Express was a “mail” service delivering messages, newspapers, mail and small packages from St. Joseph, Missouri across the Great Plains, over the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada Pass, to Sacramento, California by horseback, using a series of relay stations.

Officially operating as the Leavenworth and Pike’s Peak Express Company of 1859, in 1860 it became the Central Overland California and Pikes Peak Express Company by the freighting business. During its 19 months of operation, it reduced the time for messages to travel between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts to about 10 days. From April 3, 1860 to October 1861, it became the West’s most direct means of east-west communication before the telegraph was established and was vital for tying the new state of California with the rest of the United States. (from Wikipedia)

Marie Antoinette Guillotined


Marie Antoinette was guillotined for treason this date in 1793. She was born an Austrian archduchess, the fifteenth and second youngest child of Empress Maria Theresa and Emperor Francis of the Hapsburg Empire. Upon her marriage to Louis-Auguste, heir apparent to the French throne, she became Dauphine of France and on May 10, 1774 when her husband ascended to the throne as Louis XVI, she became Queen of France and Navarre.

France’s financial problems were the basis of the French Revolution and were the result of a combination of factors: several expensive wars, a large royal family whose expenditures were paid by the state, and an unwillingness on the part of most members of the privileged classes, aristocracy and clergy to help defray the costs of the government out of their own pockets by relinquishing some of their financial privileges. Though sole fault for the financial crisis did not lie with her, Marie Antoinette was the biggest obstacle to any major reform and was extremely unpopular for many reasons with the general population of France.

On October 5, 1792, an attack by the populace forced the royal family to move to the Tuilleries Palace in Paris, where they lived under a form of house arrest. La Fayette, one of the former military leaders in the American War of Independence, served as the warden of the royal family in his position as commander-in-chief of the Garde National.

It’s a little-known fact that Marie-Antoinette played an important role in supporting the American Revolution by securing Austrian and Russian support, which resulted in the establishment of a neutral league that stopped Great Britain’s attack. She also was decisive in the nomination of the Minister of War and the Secretary of the Navy, both of whom helped George Washington in defeating the British in the American Revolutionary War.

Her involvement with Austria contributed to her later being accused of treason for passing French secrets to the enemy (of which she was guilty). After a two-day trial, Marie Antoinette was convicted by the Revolutionary Tribunal of high treason and executed by guillotine. (me and Wikipedia)

I Love Lucy


I Love Lucy premiered on television in 1951.It was an American television sitcom starring Lucille Ball, Desi Arnaz, Vivian Vance and William Frawley. The black-and-white series originally ran from October 15, 1951 to May 6, 1957 on CBS. After the series ended, however, a modified version continued for three more seasons with 13 one-hour specials that ran from 1957 to 1960.

The show, which was the first scripted television program to be shot in 35 mm film in front of a studio audience, won five Emmy Awards and received numerous nominations. The show is still syndicated in dozens of languages around the world and remains popular with an American audience of 40 million each year. I Love Lucy is often regarded as one of the greatest and most influential sitcoms in history. In 2012, it was voted the “Best TV Show of All Time” in a survey conducted by ABC News and People Magazine.